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Tube sheets are generally made of flat plates with perforated holes to accommodate tubes and pipes in the correct position and pattern with respect to each other. Tube sheets are used to support and separate the tubes in the heat exchanger and boiler. Or to support the filter element, the tube is attached to the tube sheet by hydraulic pressure or roller expansion.
The most well-known use of tube sheets is as a support element for heat exchangers and boilers. These devices are located inside a sealed tubular shell and consist of a dense array of tubes made of thin walls. Predetermined patterns for each other’s tube angle and flow direction so that the tip of the tube can pass through the sheet. This allows the velocity and pressure drop of the fluid to be manipulated, providing maximum turbulence and tube surface contact for effective heat transfer.
Baffles are flow-directing or obstructing vanes or panels used in some industrial process vessels (tanks), such as shell and tube heat exchangers, chemical reactors, and static mixers. Baffles are an integral part of the shell and tube heat exchanger design. A baffle is designed to support tube bundles and direct the flow of fluids for maximum efficiency.
Baffles are flow-directing or obstructing vanes or panels used to direct a flow of liquid or gas. It is used in some household stoves and in some industrial process vessels (tanks), such as shell and tube heat exchangers, chemical reactors, and static mixers.
Baffles are an integral part of the shell and tube heat exchanger design. A baffle is designed to support tube bundles and direct the flow of fluids for maximum efficiency. Baffle design and tolerances for heat exchangers are discussed in the standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA).
The indirect purpose of these components, in common with the others making up the structure, is lo contain the process fluids, which may be under high pressure. Hence, although their prime function is to direct and distribute flow, it is often found that their design is dictated by strength, cheapness, or ease of manufacture, rather than by considerations of fluid dynamics. In many instances this approach results in poor distribution of the fluid within the heat exchanger.
A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe.
A nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area, and it can be used to direct or modify the flow of a fluid (liquid or gas). Nozzles are frequently used to control the rate of flow, speed, direction, mass, shape, and/or the pressure of the stream that emerges from them. In a nozzle, the velocity of fluid increases at the expense of its pressure energy.
Clad & Overlay
TEMA specifies minimum barrel thicknesses depending on diameter, material and class. Most barrels larger than 450 mm internal diameter are fabricated from rolled and welded plate. The shell barrel must be straight and true as a tightly fitting tube bundle must be inserted and particular care has to be taken in fabrication. Large nozzles may cause “sinkage” at the nozzle/shell junction due to weld shrinkage and temporary stiffeners may be needed.
Cladding is the bonding together of dissimilar metals. It is different from fusion welding or gluing as a method to fasten the metals together. Cladding is often achieved by extruding two metals through a die as well as pressing or rolling sheets together under high pressure.
* Method – Roll Bonding / Explosive Welding / Laser Cladding
PT(NDE) after Welding and Machining